In a nutshell: Some bionic eyes convert digital camera images into patterns of electrical stimulation delivered direct to the retina. Here, researchers characterize the retina’s response to electrical stimuli, and show how it can be optimized.

Wong, R. C., Garrett, D. J., Grayden, D. B., Ibbotson, M. R., & Cloherty, S. L. (2014). Efficacy of electrical stimulation of retinal ganglion cells with temporal patterns resembling light-evoked spike trains. In 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (pp. 1707-1710). IEEE.

Hadjinicolaou, A. E., Savage, C. O., Apollo, N. V., Garrett, D. J., Cloherty, S. L., Ibbotson, M. R., & O’Brien, B. J. (2015). Optimizing the electrical stimulation of retinal ganglion cells. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 23(2), 169-178.

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